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Electric Flight Techniques...

Listed below are the details as to exactly what is covered in each volume of Electric Flight Techniques. Even if you're only interested in Electric Flight, we think that all modelers should take a look at, and will benefit from volumes R-1, R-2, R-5, and R-6 of R/C Techniques.




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Motor Battery Pack Charging, Part 1

  • The right way to treat a new Electric Flight battery pack.

  • How to know what the "real" charge rate is.

  • The advantages of "slow" charging.

  • Proper use of the Ace DMVC and HD-500 chargers.

  • How and why it's important to "equalize" a pack.

  • Should you ever discharge a pack completely?

  • Why do cells reverse polarity?

  • The do's and don'ts of "paralleling" two packs.

  • SR's recommended charging procedures.

  • How to choose a "fast" charge rate that won't ruin your pack.

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Motor Wiring Systems

  • Should you use a fuse between your motor and battery pack?

  • Does it matter where you put a fuse if you do use one?

  • The right way to make a wiring harness for your aircraft.

  • Why isn't a 20 amp fuse a 20 amp fuse?

  • The right way to use Sermos fuse holders.

  • What affect does a BEC have on fuse placement?

  • Should you use an "arming" switch?

  • How do you choose the right one?

  • What does SPST, SPDT, DPDT mean?

  • How can you use a 6 amp arming switch in a 30 amp circuit?

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Motor Battery Pack Charging, Part 2

  • How to properly charge your Electric Flight battery packs.

  • When should you use the timed "slow" charge method?

  • How can you use the temperature of the pack to know when to stop the charge?

  • Is "absolute voltage" of any value?

  • What's the best way to "Fast Field Charge" your receiver and transmitter packs?

  • What is "Peak Detection" all about?

  • Should you use a peak detection charger to charge your receiver and transmitter packs?

  • What features would the perfect Electric Flight charger have?

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Motors and Motor Timing

  • How do electric motors work?

  • What is motor timing?

  • Why do you have to adjust a motor's timing?

  • What's the right way to adjust timing?

  • How do you "read" the motor's no load current?

  • Can you adjust the timing of a motor that doesn't have adjustable timing?

  • How much should the timing be changed?

  • When would you want to use "neutral" timing?

  • Does a gear drive motor need to be timed differently from a direct drive motor?

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Motor Break In

  • What is "breaking in" a motor?

  • Do all motors need to be broken in?

  • How long does it take?

  • How do I know if the brushes are seated ?

  • How do you break in a motor using the dry method?

  • What is the wet method of breaking in a motor all about?

  • Why is it important to check the no load current of the motor?

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Performance Problem Solving

  • What should you check if your aircraft isn't performing as expected?

  • Are you sure that all of the cells in your pack are working properly?

  • Why is it important for the pack to be warm after charging?

  • How can you tell if your speed control is working properly?

  • How can you tell if you're using the wrong connectors?

  • What gauge wire should you use?

  • How do you set the timing of an Astro Flight motor?

  • What are the sure signs of excessive motor wear?

  • How can you be sure the motor's brushes are installed properly?

  • How much down thrust should you use in an Electric Aircraft?

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The ABC's of Electric Flight

  • How does the name of a motor relate to its power output?

  • How can you determine how many watts are going into a motor?

  • What factors determine how many watts a motor will draw?

  • How does prop diameter, prop pitch, gear ratio, and the number of cells being used affect the input wattage of a motor?

  • Can you run a seven cell motor on five cells?

  • Can you run a seven cell motor on ten cells?

  • What's the difference between a motor and an engine?

  • What do the names of NiCd cells mean?

  • What's the difference between an "R" cell and an "E" cell?

  • What's the difference between a Magnum and a Max cell?

  • How is the capacity of a pack determined?

  • Can Electric Flight cells be used for receiver and transmitter packs?

  • What is the "internal impedance" of a cell?

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Motor Speed Controls

  • How can you control the speed of an electric motor?

  • What's the simplest way to control a motor?

  • When would you want to use a simple on/off motor control?

  • What are the advantages of a proportional speed control?

  • What's the difference between a frame rate and high rate motor control?

  • Why would you want to use one or the other?

  • Could using the wrong speed control damage a motor?

  • Which kind of speed control will increase the length of your motor runs by 50%?

  • What is a BEC?

  • What are the advantages of using a BEC?

  • What are the disadvantages of using a BEC?

  • What is an electronic brake?

  • Why would you want one?

  • What's the best radio system to buy for Electric Flight?

  • Which Electric Flight radio system shouldn't you buy? Why?

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The Defiant and the '95 Electric Nats

  • What were the unique construction details of the "Defiant" Electric Sailplane that won Class A Sailplane at the '95 Electric Nats?

  • What motor, prop, gear ratio, battery pack, and speed control were used to win Class A and B Sailplane and Class A and B Old Timer at the '95 Electric Nats?

  • What was the wing span, wing area, airfoil, weight, controls, and construction method of each of the winning aircraft in Class A and B Sailplane and Class A and B Old Timer at the '95 Electric Nats?

  • What did it take to win the Nats?

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Electric U-Control

  • Can you fly U-Control with an Electric motor?

  • What size aircraft can be flown with Electric Power?

  • What length lines can you use?

  • What motor, gear ratio, prop, and battery pack should you use?

  • Can you get full stunt performance?

  • How long are the flight times?

  • How can you optimize motor, gear ratio, prop, and battery pack for the longest possible motor runs?

  • Can a gas stunt ship be converted to Electric Power successfully?

  • What kind of speed controls are there for Electric U-Control?

  • What does it take to set a new speed record in Electric U-Control?

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Props, Part 1

  • Why do prop blades have a twist to them?

  • What does the "diameter" of a prop mean?

  • What is meant by the "pitch" of a prop?

  • Why is pitch measured in inches rather than degrees?

  • Is there a rough guide as to how efficient props are?

  • Why is the tip of the prop blade at a lower angle of attack than the center or hub area of the prop?

  • How do diameter and pitch affect each other?

  • What does increasing the diameter of a prop do for you?

  • What does increasing the pitch of a prop do for you?

  • Why can't you usually increase both diameter and pitch at the same time?

  • If you increase pitch, what should you do to the diameter of the prop so that you don't draw too much current?

  • How do you determine the optimum prop diameter and pitch for a particular aircraft and motor combination?

  • How can selecting the right prop increase your motor run times dramatically?

  • How much more power does it take to fly faster?

  • Can you slow down a boat by decreasing its prop's pitch?

  • List the specific recommended props and maximum current draws for direct drive and geared Speed 400, Speed 500, Speed 600, Astro 05, Astro FAI 05, SR Max7, Astro 15, and SR Max 10 motors for Sport, Sailplane, and Old Timer applications.

  • How do you measure current draw?

  • How should you connect the Amp Meter?


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Props, Part 2

  • When should you balance a prop?

  • How to make your own simple prop balancer.

  • Is there an easier way to balance an Electric prop?

  • How can you be sure your folding prop will fold every time?

  • How can you make sure your folding prop won't fold in Old Timer competition?

  • Folding prop tips and modifications that every Electric Flyer should know.

  • Simple wood Electric prop modifications for increased performance.

  • A preview of new Electric prop shapes that are sure winners.

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Speed 400 Systems

  • What size aircraft is ideal for Speed 400 power?

  • How much should it weigh?

  • How can you convert 1/2A Texaco Old Timers to Speed 400 power?

  • What about Hand Toss Sailplanes?

  • Should I use a 4.8v, 6v, or 7.2v Speed 400 motor?

  • How can you use a 7 or 8 cell battery pack with a 6v motor? Isn't that too much?

  • How many amps will the motor draw?

  • Is an AP29 a Speed 400 motor?

  • What about Speed 480 and Johnson motors?

  • How can I tell if I need noise suppression capacitors? What size? Where?

  • Should I use direct drive or a geardrive?

  • What gear ratio?

  • Should I use an inline gearbox or an offset design?

  • What props are best for Speed 400 applications?

  • Is any particular prop better than the rest?

  • Which speed control is best for Speed 400?

  • Do I need a brake?

  • How do you feel about BEC systems?

  • What do the speed controls weigh?

  • When would I want to use a larger, heavier, speed control?

  • Which cells are best for Speed 400 applications?

  • What do they weigh?

  • Bottom line, what's the best "starter" system?

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The Electric Conversion of the Hangar 9, ARF, Giant Scale Cub (Includes full size plans for the parts necessary for the conversion)

  • What's the simplest way to build the Cub without re-engineering the kit?

  • What's the secret to not damaging the wing during construction?

  • Are there any tail tips?

  • Should I use the 15 ounce landing gear?

  • Should I use different pushrods?

  • What size servos should I use?

  • How do I get the wind screen to fit?

  • Should I use direct drive or gear drive?

  • What motor should I use?

  • What prop should I use?

  • What speed control should I use?

  • What battery pack should I use?

  • How many cells should be in the pack?

  • What shape should the pack be?

  • What motor mount should I use?

  • How can I mount the motor so that it lines up properly with the cowl?

  • What modifications should be made to the firewall?

  • How can I keep things safe by using a "key" to arm the motor?

  • How should I mount the battery pack?

  • What modifications have to be made to the airframe?

  • How many amps will it draw?

  • Why is balancing the prop important?

  • What does everything weigh individually and all together?

  • What kind of flight time can I expect?

  • How well does it fly?

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Trimming a sport aircraft for the longest possible flight times.

  • What kind of speed control can increase your flight times by as much as 50%?

  • How do you trim a single channel aircraft?

  • Why would you use down thrust?

  • Why is trimming an Electric aircraft very different from trimming a gas aircraft?

  • Why shouldn't you use down thrust in an Electric aircraft?

  • How should an Electric aircraft be trimmed for the longest possible flight times?

  • How should you shim the wing or stabilizer to achieve a neutral elevator setting?

  • What's the best way to know that your battery pack is almost out of power and it's time to think about landing?

  • What is CG?

  • Why is it important?

  • What are the two aspects of CG?

  • Is there an easy way to check all aspects of CG at the same time?

  • What happens if the CG is too far forward?

  • What happens if the CG is too far aft?

  • What are the best ways to change the CG?

  • How can you test your aircraft to determine where the CG should really be?

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Multi-Motor Electric Flight.

  • What are all the ways you can wire a multi-motor system and what are the advantages and disadvantages of each?

  • Do multi-motor aircraft fly better?

  • How do multi-motor electric systems compare to multi-engine gas systems?

  • What makes multi-electric much easier?

  • What is the most common circuit used?

  • What is a serial multi-motor system?

  • How many cells do you need?

  • How much current will it draw?

  • What kind of speed controls and motors would you use?

  • How much weight will be added?

  • What are the advantages of a serial system and when would you want to use it?

  • What kind of charger will you need?

  • With a twin 05 serial system, how many cells will you need and how much current will it draw?

  • How about for a three motor system?

  • How about a four motor system?

  • What if you want to use 25 size motors?

  • What if you want to use three or four 25 size motors?

  • How about 40 size motors?

  • How does a parallel motor system work?

  • Why would I want to use it?

  • How many cells will you need and how much current will it draw?

  • Why wouldn't you want to use 05 motors?

  • Why would you want to use Speed 400 motors?

  • How many cells will you need and how much current will you draw with a two, three, or four Speed 400 motor system?

  • What is a Serial/Parallel system?

  • Why would you want to use it?

  • If you're using four motors, which ones would be best to use?

  • What's a Dual Series system?

  • What are its advantages?

  • When would you want to use it?

  • Does it matter how the motors are wired?

  • Is there a better way?

  • In detail, how would you wire a series system?

  • In detail, how would you wire a parallel system?

  • In detail, how would you wire a series/parallel system?

  • In detail, how would you wire a dual series system?

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Electric Soaring, Tips and Techniques, Part 1

  • What are wing warps?

  • What is washout?

  • What is washin?

  • Which is good and which is bad?

  • How can you check for warps?

  • How can you correct them?

  • Why isn’t a forward CG good?

  • Where should the CG be?

  • How can you test to see if the CG is in the right place?

  • What’s the difference between a motor glider and a thermal soarer?

  • Why would you want one or the other?

  • What should you look out for as you launch the aircraft?

  • What problems can you expect in the climb and how can you avoid them?

  • How can dual rates help?

  • How about expo?

  • How can you avoid a stall?

  • How can you make sure your folding prop folds?

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Electric Soaring, Tips and Techniques, Part 2

  • What a thermal isn’t!

  • What a thermal is!

  • What time of year is best for finding thermals?

  • What causes thermals?

  • What powers them?

  • Do thermals form in the Winter?

  • What locations are best for thermals?

  • Can you find thermals over bodies of water?

  • What are the visual clues to a thermal?

  • What is sink?

  • Where is it located?

  • What causes it?

  • What time of day is best for thermals?

  • In which direction to thermals move?

  • What happens to a thermals as it rises?

  • How do you get out of a thermal?

  • Which direction is best?

  • Which direction is worst?

  • What is the dumb way of getting out of a thermal?

  • Which controls should you use to get out of a thermal?

  • How should you trim your aircraft to get out of a thermal?

  • What is the sure way to rip the wings off?

  • What is spiraling?

  • When should you use it?

  • When shouldn’t you use it?

  • What is zero sink?

  • Why would you want it?

  • How do you find it?

  • What should you do once you’ve found it?

  • What is minimum controllable airspeed?

  • When should you use it?

  • How should you set it up?

  • What is thermalling airspeed?

  • When should you use it?

  • How should you set it up?

  • Why will you stall if you find a thermal?

  • What is high speed cruise?

  • When should you use it?

  • How should you set it up?

  • With which types of aircraft does it work best?

  • What is Vne?

  • When should you use it?

  • How should you set it up?

  • What are the dangers involved?

  • How do you find a thermal?

  • What is the sure fire way to never find a thermal?

  • How will you know you’ve found one?

  • What should you do once you’ve found one?

  • Should you turn right or left?

  • How do you center in a thermal?

  • What technique should be used to fly in low altitude thermals?

  • Which way should you make your turns?

  • What is the best approach for landing?

  • Why should you use it?

  • What is glide control?

  • Which is best? Flaps or spoilers?

  • What are spoilerons and how do they work?

  • What is CROW?

  • Why is crow the best method?

  • Why is it called crow?

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Electric Flight Q&A
  • What’s the difference between silver solder and regular solder?

  • Are there any drawbacks to removing the receiver’s case in order to save weight?

  • I noticed that the voltage of one of the cells in my pack was higher than the others. A short time later, that cell died. What’s going on?

  • Even though I’m only charging at 5 amps, I keep blowing the 20 amp fuse in my charger when I try to charge a pack with 12 cells or more. Why?

  • How large a source battery do I need to power my charger at the field?

  • I seem to be getting interference between my motor and my receiver. How can I check for it and what can I do about it?

  • My motor says it’s for use on 7.2 volts but everyone seems to be using the same motor on 7 cells (8.4 volts) or even 8 cells (9.6 volts). What gives?

  • My peak detection Electric Flight charger won’t go any lower than 500ma and I’m told that you shouldn’t charge Rx and Tx packs with it. My dealer has a field charger for Rx and Tx packs which claims to charge them in 20 minutes. What’s the difference between the two chargers?

  • Some people discharge their packs after a day’s flying. Others, leave their packs hooked up to their peak detection chargers in the trickle mode. Still others, use trickle chargers. Who is right?

  • How do lithium and nickel metal hydride cells stack up against nickel cadmium cells for Electric Flight?

  • How many capacitors should be on my motor and what value should they be?

  • How do you do a "proper" range check?

  • How does an Electric range check differ from a gas range check?

  • Why does my motor "blip" sometimes in the air?

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Designing Electric Flight Power Systems
  • What are the three very simple ways to determine if a gas to electric conversion, or the electrification of a new design, will be successful?
  • How much power per pound of aircraft do you really need?
  • What size motors go with what size aircraft?
  • How do gas motor sizes relate to electric motor sizes?
  • If there’s a 4.8v, 6v, and 7.2v version of the same motor, what practical differences can you expect and why would you choose one over another?
  • What happens if you use too much motor?
  • Should you use gear or direct drive?
  • What kind of aircraft should use each?
  • What gear ratio should you use?
  • What happens if the gear ratio is too high?
  • What happens if it’s too low?
  • Why would you choose one prop diameter or pitch over another?
  • When bench testing, why doesn’t static thrust mean anything?
  • Why is static current draw important?
  • How do you measure current draw?
  • When should you take your readings and why?
  • What is the problem in using an electronic tachometer indoors and how do you overcome it?
  • How do you calibrate an electronic tachometer?
  • How should you change the gear ratio, prop diameter, or prop pitch based on current draw?
  • How can you predict the performance of the aircraft with a particular power system?
  • What’s the much easier way?
  • How do you "massage" the prop, gearbox, and battery pack to get everything just right?
  • Are there computer programs that will make the calculations easier?
  • How do you use them and what do they do for you?
  • Is it perfect?
  • How can you make it better?

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Motor Mounting Systems

  • What are the three basic ways you can mount a motor in your aircraft?

  • How and when should you use the Sonic-Tronic Motor Mount?

  • When shouldn’t you use the Sonic-Tronic Mount?

  • What MUST you know about nylon tie wraps before you use them to hold a motor in place?

  • Which tie wraps have this feature?

  • What are Aero-Vee Motor Mounts?

  • What sizes do they come in?

  • What is the "trick" to using ordinary tie wraps with the Aero-Vee mount?

  • How is the Master Airscrew Motor Mount different?

  • When should it be used?

  • What motors will it work with?

  • How can it be used if you’re using a gearbox?

  • What are the advantages of using a solid balsa block mount?

  • How can you make and use simple wooden dowel motor mounts?

  • How do you make and use a tube motor mount?

  • What can you make them out of?

  • How do you use laser cut motor mounts?

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Balsa Selection Made Easy

  • Where does modeling balsa come from?

  • How fast does it grow?

  • Will there be a shortage of balsa?

  • What determines the weight of balsa?

  • Are there lighter woods we can use?

  • What determines the grain structure in a sheet of balsa?

  • What affect does it have on the sheet and where it should be used?

  • What is A-Grain balsa and when and where should it be used?

  • What is B-Grain balsa and when and where should it be used?

  • What is C-Grain balsa and when and where should it be used?

  • How can I tell which is which?

  • How light is balsa and what weights does it come in?

  • When and where should each weight balsa be used?

  • How should you weigh balsa?

  • When should you "match" the weight and grain in balsa?

  • Included are detailed ounce and gram weight charts for all sizes of balsa sheets, sticks, and blocks.

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Battery Eliminator Circuits

  • What is an ESC?

  • What is a BEC?

  • How is a system with BEC wired?

  • How many cells can be used with a Battery Eliminator circuit?

  • How many servos can be used with a BEC?

  • How can you test a BEC?

  • How do you turn off a BEC?

  • How and where should a fuse be placed if you’re using BEC?

  • How can you add a switch to a speed control that doesn’t have one?

  • Why shouldn’t you leave a pack connected to a speed control?

  • How does optical isolation work and when can you use it?

  • Why can’t it be used with a BEC?

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Motor Maintenance
  • Which motors need the least maintenance?

  • Which motors need the most maintenance?

  • How should you clean the gears in a gearbox?

  • What solvent should you use?

  • How can you keep dirt out of the gears?

  • How should you lubricate the gears?

  • What lubricant should you use?

  • How do you adjust the "gear mesh"?

  • How do you know when the gear mesh is right?

  • What should you double check when you think you’ve adjusted the gear mesh properly?

  • How do you pull a pinion gear off of the motor’s shaft?

  • What’s the best way to press a pinion gear onto the motor’s shaft and how do you do it?

  • How do you recess the pinion gear beyond the end of the motor’s shaft?

  • How do you know when it’s time to replace the brushes?

  • How do you replace them?

  • How should you disassemble the motor?

  • What’s the easy way to make sure it will be easy to retime the motor?

  • How can you tell if the bearings need to be replaced?

  • Why should you remove the brushes first?

  • How can you make sure that you’ll reinstall them properly?

  • What should you look out for when you remove the motor’s end bells?

  • What should you look for when you inspect the armature?

  • How will you know an armature should be replaced?

  • What’s the easy way to remove the bearings?

  • What tool should you use?

  • What’s the easy way to install new bearings?

  • What tool should you use?

  • How do you know when the bearing is seated properly?

  • How should you reassemble and lubricate the motor?

  • What is the easiest and best way to straighten a bent motor shaft?

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Aileron Servo Installation
  • What are your options as far as mounting the servo?

  • How do you prepare the well in the wing?

  • Why should you use Scotch Tape in the well?

  • How do you make longer servo leads?

  • Is there an easier way to snake the wires through the wing?

  • What are your mixing options and how is the wiring different?

  • What’s the easiest way to hinge the ailerons?

  • How do you apply the hinges?

  • Why is it important to power up your system before you attach the servo output arms?

  • Which way should the servos point and why is it important?

  • How can you keep Z bends from binding?

  • How can you introduce some aileron differential?

  • How do you arrive at the right pushrod length?

  • How can you cover the servo opening in the wing?

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Micro Electric Flight
  • What’s a Fuddy Duddy and an X70?

  • How important is weight?

  • What’s the light way to use epoxy?

  • What weight balsa should you use?

  • How much should the aircraft weigh?

  • What materials shouldn’t be used?

  • What’s the difference between gross weight and wing loading?

  • Why won’t an aircraft with a 3 ounce per square foot wing loading climb?

  • What are the most popular motors?

  • What prop should you use?

  • How many cells should you use?

  • What size cell should you use?

  • What will the current draw be?

  • What will the thrust be?

  • What should the gross weight be?

  • What should the wing area be?

  • What difference does flying indoors and outdoors make?

  • What do you need other than a motor and prop?

  • How should you break-in the motor?

  • Should you use a pusher or tractor system?

  • What do you have to do to the prop?

  • How do you do it?

  • How do you mount the components?

  • What is the ultimate wiring system?

  • Should you use a fuse?

  • What wire size should you use?

  • How do you charge 2 cell packs?

  • How do you charge 3 cell packs?

  • How long should you charge?

  • How long will the motor run be?

  • When should you stop the charge?

  • Why wouldn’t you want to fully charge the pack?

  • What are the secrets to trimming the aircraft?

  • What should you do first?

  • How should you add power?

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A Day at the Field
  • What is the standard rule of charging- how long and at what capacity?

  • What are the DMVC, HD-500 and DDVC chargers?

  • Why is slow charging so important?

  • What is a constant rate charger?

  • What is another great use for a plastic rifle and pistol case?

  • What are the necessities to bring to the field?

  • What is important to note about your first flight of the day?

  • How do you do a range check with your radio system?

  • How do you know if you have overcharged a pack?

  • Why does it matter how you turn on your transmitter, receiver and motor?

  • Why shouldn't you run your pack all they way down?

  • Why shouldn't you charge a hot pack?

  • Why should you avoid field charging receiver and transmitter packs?

  • Why is it important to unplug your motor battery packs from the speed control?

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Wiring Power Systems Properly
  • Why is soldering correctly so important?

  • Can and should you shorten wire leads?

  • What should you look for in speed control covering material?

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Brushless Motors
  • What is the difference between brushed and brushless motors?

  • What are sensorless brushless motors?

  • What are the advantages of a brushless motor?

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Inexpensive Motor/Gearbox Combinations
  • Can you be successful in electric flight without spending $300 on a special motor?

  • What are some advantages to using Graupner Motors?

  • Why are Jeti Speed Controls so great?

  • What systems do we recommend for slow flyer, park flyer, and street flyer aircraft?

  • What are the best systems for various types of sailplanes?

  • What is the best system for sport, trainer, and aerobatic aircraft?

  • What is the best system for converting a 2 meter sailplane to electric power?

  • What is the difference between Speed 400 Inline, Speed 400 Offset, Speed 480 Inline, Speed 500 Inline and Speed 700 Inline systems?

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Sub-Micro Indoor/Park Flyer Radio System and Sub-Micro Servo Installation
  • What is included in the Feather Radio System?

  • What makes the single conversion receiver different from a dual conversion receiver?

  • What is the Focus III transmitter?

  • What are some tips for installing very small servos?

  • E31 includes full size drawings of the HS-60, HS-55 and HS-50 servos, as well as the 555 and Feather receivers.

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Adhesives and Lightweight Strength
  • Why is it really so important that electric aircraft be as lightweight as possible?

  • Where is the best location for a battery pack in an aircraft?

  • How can you get strength without excessive weight in your aircraft?

  • When do you use cement adhesives?

  • When do you use water soluble white glues and aliphatic resin glues?

  • When do you use epoxy glue?

  • When do you use CA glue?

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Gearbox Maintenance
  • How do you disassemble and lubricate the Graupner Offset Gearbox for use with Speed 400 Motors?

  • How do you replace the main shaft and gear?

  • How do you add a ball bearing?

  • How do you disassemble and lubricate the Graupner Inline Gearbox?

  • How do you properly install the Master Airscrew Gearbox on a Speed 500 Race Motor.

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E-Zone Discussion
  • A selection of questions posed on the E-zone

  • How will moving the CG forward affect the flight performance of an aerobatic aircraft?

  • What is meant by "internal impedance"?

  • Do you really need matched cells?

  • How do you connect the Astro Meter to a motor to read the current draw and a charger to read the current rate?

  • Should you ever discharge a pack all the way down?

  • What are some general guidelines for charging electric flight packs?

  • If you don't have a volt meter, how can you identify a positive or negative lead?

  • I built my wing straight, but after I covered it, I found that it was warped.  What should I do?

  • How can you find a bad cell in a pack?

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